Pharaoh character jug produced in England circa 1960. Pharaoh is the vernacular term often used today for the kings and queens of ancient Egypt who ruled as monarchs from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BC) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BC. However, regardless of gender, "king" was the term used most frequently by the ancient Egyptians for their monarchs through the middle of the Eighteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. The earliest confirmed instances of "pharaoh" used contemporaneously for a ruler were a letter to Akhenaten (reigned c. 1353-1336 BC) or an inscription possibly referring to Thutmose III (c. 1479-1425 BC). This Pharaoh character jug is finished in a striking all-over royal blue glaze.